Compressed Air Safety Tips

Compressed Air Safety Tips from http://www.hosereels.biz

  • ­­­Does your air pressure keep dropping while you are using your tools & equipment?
  • Have you added or are planning to add new equipment which uses air?
  • Are your air compressors working hard all the time- but you just aren’t sure how to figure how much more horsepower you need?

When your business counts on air – you need to know the valuable formulas and steps to help accurately determine how many CFM you use. You also need to know how to accurately figure how much additional CFM and horsepower you need when considering a new air compressor?

Here are some specific formulas that can help you determine how many CFM you presently use and how many more CFM you need to meet your desired PSIG. We will show you how to take this information and use it to determine how much air compressor horsepower you actually need.

Find out how many CFM your air compressor delivers

1. STOP the compressor unit

2. CLOSE the outlet valve on the tank/air receiver

3. DRAIN the condensate from air receiver until there is 0 PSIG –
then close the drain valve

4. NOTE THE TIME- in minutes & seconds (Best to write it down.) Then START THE UNIT.
When the compressor unit stops and unloads – then NOTE THE TIME again – in minutes & seconds. Convert the minutes into seconds and then total the number of seconds it takes between START and STOP/UNLOAD.

5. NOTE the GUAGE PSIG reading

6. NOTE the Air Receiver/Tank GALLON SIZE

7. USE THIS FORMULA:

TANK GALLONS x .538* x PSIG divided by SECONDS

EXAMPLE:

You have an 80 gallon tank, your total start to stop/unload time was
3 minutes and 30 seconds. Change the minutes to seconds timed
(60 x 3= 180 seconds plus 30 seconds which totals 210). You will use the total number of seconds (210) and the noted 175 PSIG within the formula as shown below:

80 multiplied by .536 = 42.88
42.88 multiplied by 175 (Example PSIG) = 7504.00
7504.00 divided by 210 (total seconds)= 35.74 CFM delivered

The example shows that the air compressor is delivering 35.74 cfm

Your Response to this evaluation should be to compare this number with what your air compressor manufacturer says your CFM should be and evaluate how efficiently your compressor is running.
If your air compressor is within 10% of manufacturer’s specifications, then the unit is OK, if not – repair unit and recalculate your needs.

Find out how many more CFM you need to
raise your PSIG

1 What is your desired pressure ______?
(Our Example125 psig)

2. What is your present operating pressure_______?
(Our Example 70 psig)

3. Divide desired pressure by present operating pressure
(125 psig divided by 70 psig = 1.79)

4. This gives us the X-factor needed for this formula (1.79 )

Multiply present air compressor cfm (35.74) by your X-factor (1.79)
(35.74 X 1.79= 63.98 This gives you the total cfm needed –
which is 63.98 for our example)

6. Deduct your present cfm from the needed cfm
(63.98 minus 35.74 present cfm = 28.24)

7. This gives you the additional cfm needed to raise your psig to the level you actually need. (which is 28.24 additional cfm for our example)

Translate your answers into how much horsepower
you actually need to operate

Divide your additional cfm needed by 3.5* (see the chart for your *actual compressor type & horsepower)
(28.24 ÷ 3.5 = 8.07 hp, which would be the additional horsepower needed for our example)

This will give you the additional horsepower you actually need.

(We will need to round up the 8.07 hp to 10 hp needed for our example. You will have to round up to the nearest standard
horsepower also.)

*CFM per compressor horsepower chart:

3.5.cfm per hp for small piston compressors ½-30 hp

4 cfm per hp for large piston 40 hp up & small screw compressors
2 hp-30 hp

4.5 cfm per hp for 40 hp-150 hp medium hp screws

5 cfm per hp for 200 hp-2000 hp large screw & centrifugal compressors
Note: Always buy CFM of delivered air at the PSIG you need…not horsepower.

Note: Always invest in at least 20% more CFM than your equipment needs. This will cover extra air usage for such things as air leaks and wear.

Follow these formulas and you can figure just how much more CFM and air compressor horsepower you really need to get the job done!

Compressor Terms you should know:

Cubic Feet Per Minute (cfm) – Volumetric air flow rate.

“psig” means pounds per square inch, GAGE pressure. Gage pressure is the absolute pressure of something, with the atmospheric pressure subtracted. In practice, when someone gives a pressure in just “psi” they probably mean gage pressure. If they mean absolute, they should be using “psia.”

Gauge Pressure – The pressure determined by most instruments and gauges, usually expressed in psig. Barometric pressure must be considered to obtain true or absolute pressure.

Load Time – Time period from when a compressor loads until it unloads.

Unload – (No load) Compressor operation in which no air is delivered due to the intake being closed or modified not to allow inlet air to be trapped.

Receiver – A vessel or tank used for storage of gas under pressure. In a large compressed air system there may be primary and secondary receivers.

Tommy McGuire

McGuire Air Compressors, Inc.
“Real People with Real Compressor Experience”

1-888-229-9999

www.industrialaircompressors.biz

www.hosereels.biz

www.airdryers.biz

The most used, most needed and most valuable Compressed Air Formulas

Do you have access to the most used, most needed and most valuable Compressed Air Formulas? Here’s one of the most used formulas you should keep on hand…
How to find how many CFM your air compressor delivers.

Follow these steps to find out how many
CFM Your Air Compressor actually delivers

1. STOP the compressor unit

2. CLOSE the outlet valve on the tank/air receiver

3. DRAIN the condensate from air receiver until there is 0 PSIG -then close the drain valve

4. NOTE THE TIME– in minutes & seconds (Best to write it down.) Then START THE UNIT.
When the compressor unit stops and unloads – then NOTE THE TIME again – in minutes & seconds. Convert the minutes into seconds and then total the number of seconds it takes between START and STOP/UNLOAD.

5. NOTE the GUAGE PSIG reading

6. NOTE the Air Receiver/Tank GALLON SIZE

7. USE THIS FORMULA:

TANK GALLONS x .536* x PSIG divided by SECONDS

*.536 is a formula factor for the unknown that works to give you the CFM delivery.

EXAMPLE:
You have an 80 gallon tank, your total start to stop/unload time was 3 minutes and 9 seconds.
Change the minutes to seconds timed (60 x 3= 180 seconds plus 9 seconds totals 189).  You will use the total number of seconds189 and the noted 175 PSIG within the formula as shown below:

80 multiplied by .536 = 42.88
42.88 multiplied by 175 (example PSIG) = 7504.00
7504.00 divided by 189 (total seconds)= 39.71 CFM delivered

You now know that your air compressor is delivering 39.71 CFM

Your Response to this evaluation should be to compare this number with what your air compressor manufacturer says your CFM should be and evaluate how efficiently your compressor is running.

 

Compressor Terms you should know:

Cubic Feet Per Minute (cfm) – Volumetric air flow rate.

“psig” means pounds per square inch, GAGE pressure. Gage pressure is the absolute pressure of something, with the atmospheric pressure subtracted. In practice, when someone gives a pressure in just “psi” they probably mean gage pressure. If they mean absolute, they should be using “psia.”

Gauge Pressure – The pressure determined by most instruments and gauges, usually expressed in psig. Barometric pressure must be considered to obtain true or absolute pressure

Load Time – Time period from when a compressor loads until it unloads.

Unload – (No load) Compressor operation in which no air is delivered due to the intake being closed or modified not to allow inlet air to be trapped.

Receiver – A vessel or tank used for storage of gas under pressure. In a large compressed air system there may be primary and secondary receivers.

Demand – Flow of air at specific conditions required at a point or by the overall facility.

Tommy McGuire

McGuire Air Compressors, Inc.
“Real People with Real Compressor Experience”

1-888-229-9999

www.industrialaircompressors.biz
www.hosereels.biz
www.airdryers.biz

 

 

Here’s one of the most used formulas you should keep on hand…
How to find how many CFM your air compressor delivers.

Follow these steps to find how many
CFM Your Air Compressor delivers

1. STOP the compressor unit

2. CLOSE the outlet valve on the tank/air receiver

3. DRAIN the condensate from air receiver until there is 0 PSIG -then close the drain valve

4. NOTE THE TIME– minute & second. Then START THE UNIT.
When unit stops/unloads – then NOTE THE TIME again – minute & seconds. Convert minutes into seconds and then total number of seconds it takes between START and STOP/UNLOAD.

5. NOTE the GUAGE PSIG reading

6. NOTE the Air Receiver/Tank GALLON SIZE

7. USE THIS FORMULA:

TANK GALLONS x .538* x PSIG divided by SECONDS
 
EXAMPLE:
You have an 80 gallon tank, your total seconds timed were 189 and you noted 175 PSIG.

80 multiplied by .536 = 42.88
42.88 multiplied by 175 (example PSIG) = 7504.00
7504.00 divided by 189 (total seconds)= 39.71 CFM delivered

You now know that your air compressor is delivering 39.71 CFM

Your Response to this evaluation should be to compare this number with what your air compressor manufacturer says your CFM should be and evaluate how efficiently your compressor is running.

Tommy McGuire

McGuire Air Compressors, Inc.
“Real People with Real Compressor Experience”

1-888-229-9999

www.industrialaircompressors.biz
www.hosereels.biz
www.airdryers.biz

This new handbook shows you step by step
how to slash your compressor’s
annual electrical bill 20% to 50%

Compressed air is considered an “industrial utility” that usually comes with a huge annual electric bill.

Now you can have access to the compressed air industry’s energy audit secret formulas.  

Professional compressed air energy audits can cost thousands of dollars.  But this step-by-step book will show you the formulas the pros use to discover how much energy you are wasting. These formulas would take you hours of research to discover- if you had access to the industry’s technical material. We have collected them for you and put them in a simple, easy-to-follow order that will help you find and fix your top four biggest compressed air energy-wasters.

Here’s what you’ll get in this one-of-a-kind book:
-A detailed PDF manual, with seven step by step instructions and industry-standard formulas to help you slash your compressed air electrical costs

-Steps to figure your existing cost per year to operate your air compressor

-Time-tested professional recommendations that can save 20% to 50% of your annual electrical cost of operating your compressed air system-but cost very little to implement

-The prescription to fix the four biggest energy-wasters in most compressed air systems

-Seven pages of formula worksheets you can print out and use to figure your own energy savings

ECONOMICAL Steps to BIG Savings
-One of the biggest advantages to this handbook’s approach is that you don’t have to spend “an arm and a leg” in order to see BIG savings.

-You’ll get instructions to make key adjustments on your equipment – which will cost very little.

-You will need to perform a thorough annual PM on your air compressor system – which should be inexpensive as well as part of your normal preventative maintenance.

-You can even use the formulas to figure your savings BEFORE you begin to implement  the recommendations.

This is not a gimmick, hype or a fad…
It’s just a smarter way of operating your compressed air system
.

The valuable information in this handbook can save you hundreds, probably thousands of dollars this year. Don’t pass up this opportunity.
All these compressed air industry’s secret formulas and step-by-step instructions to huge savings are yours for only $39.95.

Click here to order your copy today.

Tommy McGuire
Owner of McGuire Air Compressors, Inc.
“Real People with Real Air Compressor Experience”
1-888-229-9999
compressors@mcguire.biz
Champion Industrial Air Compressors http://www.industrialaircompressors.biz/
Genuine Reelcraft Hose Reels: http://www.hosereels.biz/
Deltech Refrigerated Air Dyers: http://www.airdryers.biz/

Figuring the correct pipe size for your compressed air distribution system is an important task. 
Pipe that is sized too small can create big pressure losses and reduce operating efficiency. Replacing piping is costly.  On average, 70% of a contracted piping job goes for labor and 30% for materials.

Do you know the biggest mistakes made in figuring compressed air piping sizes?
Many people who plan the piping never consider the fittings or the future.

FITTINGS:
Every pipe fitting creates a certain amount of increased frictional air loss that is equal to a specified length of pipe.
For every 100 feet of pipe you will have a ONE POUND PRESSURE DROP caused by frictional air loss.
Any turns in the pipe at fittings, ells, tees, and valves increase pressure drops even more.  That’s why the EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF PIPE (FT.) for PIPE FITTINGS chart was developed to help you determine the best pipe size for your system.

FUTURE:
Are you planning to add more equipment in the next year or two?  Then plan for larger piping now.  Since the material costs in piping are low compared to installation or replacement cost, it’s wise to select pipe of an adequate size. If there is any doubt that a pipe size may create a pressure drop, use the next largest size. Remember that an oversize pipe compensates for possible scale build-up and provides for future expansion of the overall air system.

Steps to figuring what size piping your compressed air system needs:

  1. Determine your air compressor’s maximum CFM.
  2. Draw a piping schematic and show all pipe fittings, valves, etc.
  3. Measure and write the corresponding lengths of pipe on your schematic, then total the length of all straight pipes needed and note that on your schematic.
  4. Using TABLE 1, find your compressor’s CFM number on the far left column,
    and then go to the right until you see the column header with nearest length in feet to your total pipe length. Find where the CFM & PIPE LENGTH intersect on the chart and it will show the recommended pipe size for that length.
  5. Take that pipe size to TABLE 2 and use the table to find all the EQUIVELENT LENGTHS OF PIPE needed for each PIPE FITTING.  Write these lengths on your piping schematic at each fitting.
  6. TOTAL all the EQUIVELENT LENGTHS OF PIPE needed for each PIPE FITTING and add to your total of straight length of pipe.  This will give you a new and more accurate total pipe length needed.
  7.  Take your new total of EQUIVELENT LENGTH OF PIPE IN FEET back to TABLE 1 and use this number to determine the PIPE SIZE you need.
  8. Think of the FUTURE!
    Now is the time to plan for larger piping that may needed for additional future equipment.
How to figure the right air pipe size

Table 1- The right pipe size

Table 2 - to help figure the right air piping size

Table 2 - to help figure the right air piping size

Leaks can be a big source of wasted energy in an industrial compressed air system, sometimes wasting 20 to 30 percent of a compressor’s output. A typical plant that has not been well maintained will likely have a leak rate equal to 20 percent of total compressed air production capacity. On the other hand, proactive leak detection and repair can reduce leaks to less than 10 percent of compressor output.

In addition to being a source of wasted energy, leaks can also contribute to other operating losses.
Leaks cause a drop in system pressure, which can make air tools function less efficiently, adversely affecting production. In addition, by forcing the equipment to run longer, leaks shorten the life of almost all system equipment (including the compressor package itself).

Increased running time can also lead to additional maintenance requirements and increased unscheduled downtime. Finally, leaks can lead to adding unnecessary compressor capacity.

Q. Where do most leaks usually occur?

Answer:
While leakage can come from any part of the system, the most common problem areas are:

• Couplings, hoses, tubes, and fittings

• Pressure regulators

• Open condensate traps and shut-off valves

• Pipe joints, disconnects, and thread sealants.

Q. How much can compressor leaks cost my business?

Answer:
A small leak – no larger than 1/16″ can cost an extra $523 a year*.
Add a few other small leaks here and there until you have leaks equal to a 1/4″ opening…and now that “small leak” can cost you $8,382 a year.*  It is easy to see that what seems like a small leak comes with a very high price tag over time.

*Costs calculated using electricity rate of $0.05 per kilowatt-hour, assuming constant operation and an efficient compressor.

Q. How do you estimate the SIZE of AIR LEAKS?
Answer:
It’s not very hard.  We’ll use the “TIME METHOD” to estimate percentage % of loss due to air leaks in your plant. 

1-    Turn OFF all air operated end-user equipment.
2-    Start your air compressor and let it cycle 3 times
3-    Time the OFF-LINE / UNLOAD TIME (not pumping time) using your watch. (Example: 5 minutes)|
4-   Time the ON-LINE / LOAD TIME (pumping time) using your watch. (Example: 2 minutes)
5-   Calculate total percentage of air leaks as follows:

Add the OFF / UNLOAD and the ON / LOAD times together:

Example: T(5 minutes)  +  T (2 minutes)= 7 minutes
Divide  ON / LOAD time T (2 minutes) by the total minutes: 2 ÷ 7 = 0.29

The result tells you 29% of your air compressor’s CFM’s are maintaining your AIR LEAKS.
This would mean that you are losing almost ONE THIRD of your compressed air to air leaks. 

Q. What’s the best way to detect and fix compressor leaks?

Answer:
Since air leaks are almost impossible to see, other methods must be used to locate them.

The best way to detect leaks is to use an ultrasonic acoustic detector, which can recognize the high-frequency hissing sounds associated with air leaks. These portable units consist of directional microphones, amplifiers, and audio filters, and usually have either visual indicators or earphones to detect leaks.

A simpler method is to apply soapy water with a paint brush to suspect areas. Although reliable, this method can be time consuming.

Click here to see how to estimate the SIZE of AIR LEAKS.

Q. How To Fix Leaks

Answer:
Leaks occur most often at joints and connections. 

Stopping leaks can be as simple as tightening a connection or as complex as replacing faulty equipment, such as couplings, fittings, pipe sections, hoses, joints, drains, and traps. In many cases, leaks are caused by failing to clean the threads or by bad or improperly applied thread sealant. Select high quality fittings, disconnects, hose, tubing, and install them properly with appropriate thread sealant.

Non-operating equipment can be an additional source of leaks. Equipment no longer in use should be isolated with a valve in the distribution system.

Another way to reduce leaks is to lower the air pressure of the system. The lower the pressure differential across an orifice or leak, the lower the rate of flow, so reduced system pressure will result in reduced leakage rates. Stabilizing the system header pressure at its lowest practical range will minimize the leakage rate for the system. Once leaks have been repaired, the compressor control system must be re-evaluated to realize the total savings potential.

Establishing a Leak Prevention Program

There are two basic types of leak repair programs:

1. The leak tag program
2. The seek and repair program.

The” seek and repair” method is the simplest. As it states, you simply find the leak and repair it immediately.

With the leak tag program, the leak is identified with a tag and logged for repair at a later time. This is often a two-part tag; one part stays on the leak and the other part is turned into the maintenance department, identifying the location, size, and description of the leak to be repaired. The best approach depends on the type, size, and the culture/work practices of the facility. It is more likely that the best solution will be a combination of the two.

*SOURCE:  Based on definitions taken from “Improving Compressed Air System Performance” published as a cooperative effort of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Best Practices and the Compressed Air Challenge®.

 

Tommy McGuire
Owner of McGuire Air Compressors
“Real People with Real Air Compressor Experience”
888-229-9999

Email:compressors@mcguire.biz

Offering you Quality Industrial Equipment at a Savings…

http://www.industrialaircompressors.bizhttp://www.industrialaircompressors.biz

http://www.airdryers.bizhttp://www.airdryers.biz

http://www.hosereels.bizhttp://www.hosereels.biz